Star 45

Star 45

Thursday, November 05, 2015

Wednesday, July 08, 2015

Synthetic Sail Cloths for making SAILS 10.08.2014


Films are thin sheet material extruded from synthetic polymers and are typically used along with woven cloth in a laminate (see laminates below).

PET film is the most common film used in laminated sailcloth. It is an extruded and biaxially oriented version of PET fiber. In the US and Britain, the most well-known trade names are Mylar and Melinex.

PEN film is extruded and biaxially oriented version of PEN fiber. Just as PEN fiber is stronger than PET fiber, PEN film is stronger than PET film. However, PEN film is rarely used in standard sailcloth styles because it shrinks more rapidly than PET, is less resistant to abuse, and reduces the working life of the sail.

Scrim and strands

Strands are combined from fibers; these are frequently narrow flat bands or ribbons of high strength material. Scrim is a loose weave or lattice of strands, typically bonded where they cross to maintain the grid pattern. Strands and scrims are used to strengthen or reinforce sailcloth (see laminates below).

Laminated sailcloth

In the 1970s sailmakers began to laminate multiple materials with different characteristics to synergize the qualities of each. Using sheets of PET or PEN reduces stretch in all directions, where weaves are most efficient in the direction of the threadlines. Lamination also allow fibers to be placed in a straight, uninterrupted paths. There are four main construction styles:


Film is sandwiched in between two layers of woven taffeta, the film provides most of the stretch resistance and the taffeta enhances tear and abrasion resistance. The high-end versions of this method use a woven Spectra or Kevlar taffeta. In some newer styles, off threadline aramid yarns, are also laid into the laminate. In some cases the second layer of taffeta is eliminated for cost and weight savings

Film-scrim-film or film-insert-film (film-on-film)

In this construction, a scrim or strands (inserts) are sandwiched between layers of film. Thus load-bearing members are laid straight, which maximizes the high modulus of the fibers, where a woven material will have some inherent stretch to the weave. Laminating film to film around the strands creates a very strong and dependable bond reducing the amount of adhesive needed. In high quality cloth, the strands or scrim are tensioned during the lamination process.

The drawbacks are: film is not as abrasion or flex resistant as a weave, it does not protect the structural fibers from UV rays. In some cases UV protection is added.


Woven fabric with high UV and abrasion protection is added to the film-on-film. This combines the best of the above, but is costly, heavy, and stiff. This is an attractive method to combine high modulus fibers with poor UV resistance.


Wovens on both sides of a scrim without the film layer. The problem is getting enough high modulus yarn into the sandwich, and still being able to get a good bond, because, dissimilar fabrics don’t often bond well. This technique is more experimental than practical, but may yield results in time.

Friday, November 21, 2014

Rick Shousha ; The Modeller's Workshop » Laser Cut Frames

The Modeller's Workshop » Laser Cut Frames

Rick Shousha  Montreal 
Laser Cut Frames

Big really is better. My clients love to call me up and ask for
the biggest model I have available. Once they’ve built that, then what?
Why spend months looking at plans and wondering how to go from the paper
to the frames? Making up your own frames is expensive and
time-consuming. Why not get to the actual construction faster? Our
custom design service can save you months of work.

It’s simple. Send us your plans and let us know what scale you want.
We then design the frames with the appropriate number of stations for
the size of model you want and you can be planking in weeks instead of

There are three main reasons why you may want custom made laser-cut frames for your model:

  • The model you want does not exist
  • The model you want is in the wrong scale; usually it’s too small
  • The model you have came with bad quality frames
Save yourself months of work! Send us your plans and let us make your frames for you.

Friday, November 14, 2014

Traveling with a Star 45 to away places

j fisher [Star45] <>

10:38 AM (1 hour ago)

to Star45

I have two {golf club} cases.  Both will hold a star. 
About 48 to 50in long.  The larger of the two will also hold a
marblehead.  Just go to your local sporting goods store or gold shop and
see what they have. There are quite a few different options. 

my keels are removable.  I put my masts in a 4" pvc tube, sails and
hull in the golf club case and the keel in my checked bag. 

On Fri, Nov 14, 2014 at 7:19 AM, DaveMainwaring [Star45] <> wrote:

Sunday, April 28, 2013

Changes to RRS 2013 - YouTube

Changes to RRS 2013 - YouTube

Published on Apr 23, 2013
In part one of this seminar David Allsebrook walks us through the changes in 2013 to the Racing Rules of Sailing for Radio Sailors, specifically 'Definitions' and 'Avoiding Contact'.

Saturday, July 24, 2010

Star construction examples.

PondYachtworks in Scottsdale, AZ.
The Star 45 is a one design class of model yachts recognized by the American Model Yacht Association. This boat is 45" long with a minumum weight of 12 pounds. The design is a semiscale model of a International Star. These boats can be scratchbuilt, from a kit or purchased complete.

Friday, November 20, 2009

AMYA Star45 Class rules as of 11.20.2009

American Model Yachting Association
AMYA Class Rules   2009
1.0 Hull:

1.1 The Star 45 Class establishes as their approved plans a set of lines and drawings as the approved reference and construction plans for the class. These plans are scaled and appropriately modified for the use of modelers building a 45-inch model of the Star Boat. Existing plans supplied by kit manufacturers, etc. are grandfathered. New molds, plugs and scratch built models shall conform to the approved plans and specifications.

1.2 Hull length will be 45 inches (plus or minus one half (½) inch overall. (NOTE: this does not include any chain plate for backstay attachment, or ¼ inch bow bumper if used. However, if the chain plate is attached to the transom or overhangs the transom, it may not extend beyond the transom more than 3/8 of a inch.) Hulls may not be less than 11 inches nor exceed 12 inches in beam when measured at the widest point on the deck. (Rubrails are not included in measuring but will not exceed ¼ inch of thickness/width.)

1.3 In the event of a builder choosing to scratch or hand build a Star 45 Yacht, the builder must adhere to the class approved reference and construction drawings, as obtained from the AMYA Ships Store, as in the builders ability. A second consideration in scratch building is to ensure that safe and sound building practice be maintained.

1.4 All hulls will be constructed of wood or fiberglass or a combination of wood and fiberglass and be a minimum of 16 ounces when weighed before attachment of the deck and keel. This weight must be verified by another member of the Star 45 Class using the Class Measurement Form.

1.5 Decks shall be constructed of wood, fiberglass or plastic laminate material.

1.6 All hulls shall be the standard hard-chine hull. Hulls may be built with a sheer at scale height or with a sheer no more than one inch higher than scale (when measured at the point of maximum depth of sheer.)

1.7 All fiberglass and wood hulls will have a name plate permanently attached to the inside of the hull so as to be seen when the hatch cover is removed.

1.8 At or before its first Sanctioned Regatta the newly built model yacht must be measured using, as reference, the approved measurement form and signed by not less than the owner of the model yacht and one other member of the class. This measurement form shall become, with the registration card, a permanent record of this model yacht.

1.9 The AMYA Star 45 Class recognizes and approves the molds and manufacturer and/or kit packagers of Star 45 molded hulls and kits in existence at the time of approval of these specifications. These sources will be approved sources for the class. New manufacturers will be directed to submit the first of their product to the Class Secretary for approval.

1.10 No maximum weight is specified, however, no yacht will weigh less than 12 pounds when fully rigged ready to sail. This means with all gear, rigging, sails, radio components, batteries and ballast placed and secured on board.

1.11 Bow Bumpers are mandatory for all class registered STAR 45 yachts. Bow bumpers are limited to three eight's of an inch (3/8") overhang. Bow bumpers shall be excluded in the overall length measurement, whether recessed in or otherwise attached to the bow stem. Bow bumpers must be of resilient fabrication to minimize damage to another yacht in the event of a collision.
2.0 SAILS:

2.1 Sails may be of single or multi-paneled construction. Sail material shall be unrestricted.

2.2 All sails are to be cut to comply with the following maximum dimensions when measured by the procedure as outlined in the "AMYA Regulations". Dimensions shown are measured 'Edge of Cloth" to "Edge of Cloth" and are in inches.

Luff 62.75 42.50
Foot 25.50 15.75
Leech 65.50 37.00
Roach 2.00 0.50
Head 0.75 0.75
Foot Round 0.50 0.50

2.4 All sails, main and jib, will be cut with either a straight head to clew leech with no roach, or a fair curved head to clew leech with the maximum roach point occurring approximately one half the distance from the clew to head. Divide a straight line from the aft corners of the Clew and Head into four (4) equal sections. Then, for the Main Sail, maximum offset from edge of cloth for the Roach at the quarter points to be 1.75" and the offset at the mid-point to be 2.0". For the Jib, the offset at the quarter points to be 0.375" and at the mid-point to be 0.50". Sails cut with a straight leech at the maximum roach allowance are prohibited from use on the Star 45 Class Yacht.

2.5 The mainsail gooseneck or attachment will be attached to the Mast between 0.50 inch minimum to 4.0 inch maximum measured from the deck.

2.6 Battens are allowed on the mainsail but are restricted to 4 in number, equally spaced along the leech and may not exceed 8.50 inches in length. Battens are not permitted in the jib sail.

2.7 Sailmakers must conform to the above measurements.

2.8 Standing rigging is not specified except for the height of the jib stay attach point on the mast, which will not exceed 54 inches above the deck when measured from the deck at the mast step point, and mast head fittings are limited to a projection of 3.0 inches behind the mast. Control of standing rigging by other than manual manipulation (Hand Turning) is prohibited.

2.9 The Class Secretary maintains a master sail measurement template. Sail measurement templates shall be kept current with the class specifications as well as new motions passed by the rank and file. Templates shall be made of material consistent of lasting shape. Templates shall be made available for AMYA sanctioned regattas upon request from the hosting AMYA sanctioned club. Other non-sanctioned regattas may request templates which is subject to availability and discretion of the Class Secretary.
3.0 MAST:

3.1 Masts shall be made of wood or aluminum. Swing rigs, rotating and permanently bent masts are prohibited.

3.2 Masts shall not exceed ¾ inches square when measured at the thickest point of the mast. Maximum mast height shall be 70" when measured from the deck, inclusive of the crane. Rotating wind indicators and burgee staffs are not included provided the backstay is not attached to them in order to circumvent the 70" maximum mast height specification.
4.0 BOOMS:

4.1 The main boom and jib club shall not exceed 5/8" when measured at the thickest point. Booms and jib clubs shall be constructed of wood, aluminum and/or fiberglass.

5.1 Radio control systems of any number of channels may be used but the functions are limited to the rudder, sail control (jib sheets and main sheet) using no more than three servos. Control of the jib may be separate or may be combined in one function.

6.1 Rudders may be constructed of wood, fiberglass, plastic, plastic laminates or metal. The exact shape is not specified, but they may not exceed 4 ½ inches at the hull (fore and aft) 3 inches at the bottom, (fore and aft); and may not project more than 7 inches below the hull when measured at the post.

7.1 Keel will be of the style known as drop, and will be of the FIN and BULB type.

7.2 Keel fins may be solid or hollow and constructed of reinforced plastic, plastic laminates, fiberglass, wood or metal. (Note: Strength and integrity of the keel fins must be maintained whether built solid or hollow.) Keel fin shape is not specified but must follow the general shapes outlined on the reference drawing. However, keels will not be less than 6 inches nor more than 8 inches long (Fore and Aft) at the keel/hull junction, nor less than 4 inches nor more than 6 inches long (Fore and Aft) at the keel/ballast bulb junction.

7.3 Keels, keel fins and ballast bulbs may be removable, however, they may not be changed, interchanged, substituted or otherwise manipulated once any heat or series of heats in which scores will be compiled, has started. Mechanically movable keels or ballast bulbs are specifically prohibited from use in Star 45 Class Yachts.

7.4 Ballast bulbs may be constructed of any material not prohibited by the AMYA. The actual shape is left to the builder's discretion, but will not exceed 9.75 (9 ¾) inches from the front of the keel bulb to the rearmost point of the keel or bulb.

7.5 Total drop (length) of the keel fin/ballast bulb combination will not exceed 11.5 (11 ½) inches when measured from the keel/hull junction, before any fillers or streamlining is added.

7.6 Ballast may be made from any readily available material, such as poured lead, lead shot, etc. (Note: When using material such as lead shot, the mass must be solidified through the use of a bonding agent such as fiberglass or epoxy resin, plaster of paris, poured over and through in order to create a solid mass.)

7.7 Race directors may elect to use a template based on the construction plans to determine the keel length (depth).

7.8 Keel depth shall be measured from the center of the keel fin at the hull to the bottom of the ballast bulb. This measurement is from the edge of the bottom of the hull as it meets the side of the keel and should be determined during construction and before any fillet or fairing is added.

7.9 The Star 45 Class specifically excludes radio equipment, sail controls and batteries (power cells) from being considered ballast. This specification defines ballast as anything carried aboard the model for the main purpose of changing the weight distribution of the model and/or weight of the model. Ballast shall be fixed in place by gluing, fiberglassing, or bolting (bolts and screws).

7.9.1 Ballast may not be removed or relocated during any one regatta. The use of Velcro or similar quick release fasteners is prohibited as methods of mounting ballast.
8.0 DECK:

8.1 Deck construction shall be limited to wood, plywood, fiberglass reinforced plastic or plastic laminations (Formica). It may be covered with any material. Thin plastic films, such as MonoKote, are not allowed for decks except as coverings.

8.2 Hatches are not restricted in size, location, number or style, as long as deck strength and integrity are maintained.

9.1 Each yacht shall carry on her main sail the class 5 point "STAR EMBLEM" and an assigned AMYA registration number. The star shall be at least 2 inches in size (measured from point to point across the flat of the star) and positioned above the registration number. Registration numbers shall be at least 3 inches in height and at least 3/8 inch thick. Both star and registration numbers will be placed on the upper half of the mainsail on both port and starboard sides of the mainsail and shall be positioned so as to be easily read from either side.

10.1 The following are procedures that must be followed by manufacturers, class secretaries and scratch builders, who are going to make more than one hull for sale.

10.1.1 The builder shall send to the class secretary proof of craftsmanship, hull by means of transportation of the builder's choice.

10.1.2 The class secretary will, upon receiving hull for measurement, notify the builder of the condition of the hull.

10.1.3 The class secretary will measure the hull.

10.1.4 When measuring hull the class secretary will request a Star 45 owner to assist with the measuring.

10.1.5 The class secretary will measure the hull, using the templates of the hull pictured in the approved plans.

10.1.6 The templates will be made of Plexiglas or wood (not Balsa).

10.1.7 The membership can request a copy of these templates by sending a request to the class secretary. These templates have been taken from the approved plans and are true and accurate.

10.1.8 The class secretary upon completion of the measuring will return the hull to the builder. The class secretary will also assign a number for the hull, if approved. Each hull will be measured regardless of condition. The manufacturer will keep in his possession a record of as to whom he sold hulls.

11.1 The class secretary shall be authorized to conduct class business such as granting interim approval to molds, manufacturers and similar approvals provided those actions are reported in the newsletter.

12.1 These specifications shall take precedent over any other document.

STAR 45 CLASS Model Yacht TECHNICAL COMMITTEE of 11/06 - 12/09
Clarification of the backstay attachment overhang of Star 45 Class Rule 1.2:

Extension may be measured by locating a carpenter's try square or right triangle on the deck surface adjacent to the transom. Place the square or triangle so that an edge of the square or triangle projects upward at a right angle to the longitudinal surface of the deck and intersects the aft edge of the transom, where it joins to the deck. Do this at the longitudinal center line of the hull or wherever the means is located along the transom. The chain plate, strut, boomkin or other means shall not extend farther than 3/8 of an inch past the aforementioned edge of the try square or right triangle.
Clarification of the definition of a hull in Star 45 Class Rule 1.4:
This phrase from the Rule: "All hulls...and be a minimum of 16 ounces when weighed before attachment of deck and keel." SHALL BE INTERPRETED TO MEAN: 16 ounces shall be the minimum total weight of the following parts: For fiberglass hulls: The hull shell, as withdrawn from the mold, plus the rail installed along the gunnels and stern for deck attachment, plus any reinforcement applied to the hull to strengthen the bottom of the hull at the keel/hull joint and at the mast post/hull joint. Nothing else is to be weighed, not the radio receiver/servo supports, nor keel box/tubes, nor mast post, nor rudder tube, nor rudder attachments, nor chain plate mounting pads, nor paint applied after withdrawing the hull from the mold, nor the deck, nor anything else.

For wood and wood/fiberglass hulls: The hull shell, as constructed, including frames, stringers, glue, waterproofing (not decorative paint) and any other internal structure that will not be removed prior to completing the construction of the boat and that is needed to strengthen and/or form the shape of the hull shell. Nothing else is to be weighed, not the radio receiver/servo supports, nor keel box/tubes, nor mast post, nor rudder tube, nor rudder attachments, nor chain plate mounting pads, nor paint applied to the hull shellS exterior, nor the deck, nor anything else.

These lists may be updated as needed in response to creative use of this Guideline.

APPLICATION:The hull will be weighed after removal from the mold (fiberglass hull) or the building board (wood or wood/fiberglass hull) and in a state of readiness for completing the construction of the boat (fiberglass hulls are waterproof, and therefore waterproofing may be added to wood or wood/fiberglass hulls prior to weighing). Weighing shall take place before the installation of : radio control equipment or its supports; rudder; keel; deck; decorative paint; anything else. If prohibited items are installed prior to weighing, the weight of the prohibited components will be added to the minimum weight. Example: if a radio tray is added to the frames before planking the sides/bottom and the tray weighed one oz before installation, the hull shall weigh 17 oz or more with the tray installed. If it is not reasonably convenient for an AMYA star class member to witness the weighing, a photo will be acceptable for Class registration purposes, provided that the photo clearly illustrates the hull on a scale indicating a weight of more than the minimum weight.
Clarification of the bumper thickness in Star 45 Class Rule 1.11 and 1.2
INTERPRETATION:This phrase from the Rule: " Bow Bumpers are mandatory for all class registered STAR 45 yachts. Bow bumpers are limited to three eight's of an inch (3/8") overhang… " and "…1/4 inch bow bumper if used..." SHALL BE INTERPRETED TO MEAN: All Star 45's shall have a bow bumper, and the bumper shall not protrude in any direction from the hull more than 3/8". On a boat with a cut- out for the bow bumper, an insert of non-resilient material will be considered part of the hull and not part of the bumper. Rule 1.11 shall be the governing rule for the bumper, and the 1/4" specification from Rule 1.2 shall be disregarded.

APPLICATION:The distance that a bumper protrudes from the hull shall be checked with a ruler with graduations of no less than 1/16" . Alternatively, a sharp object may be employed that penetrates the bumper material, but not the hull. In either case the measurement of protrusion of the outer surface of the bumper from the hull shall be no more than 3/8".
Clarification of the permanent mast bend Star 45 Class Rule 3.1
INTERPRETATION:This phrase from the Rule: "Swing rigs, rotating and permanently bent masts are prohibited." SHALL BE INTERPRETED TO MEAN: The Star 45 mast, standing free, without deflecting forces applied to it from any direction, may be curved or bent, but the deflection of the mast from its longitudinal axis, at any point along its length, shall not exceed one inch. This does not prevent a sailor from bending the mast with the standing rigging, to any extent, when the mast is installed on the boat. A bend at the mast head to extend the crane is not allowed.

APPLICATION:With the mast removed from the boat, or with standing rigging disconnected, sight along the longitudinal axis of the mast. If the mast is straight, no further measurement needs to be made.If the mast appears to be curved or bent, a string or elastic is run from the mast foot to the mast head, with no deflection of the line by the mast. The distance from the string or elastic surface to the mast surface shall not exceed one inch at any point along the length of the mast. If the mast has an S curve the measurer should situate the ends of the string or elastic aligned with the centerlines of the mast's head and foot. A side of the mast may have to be chosen which offers a unobstructed path from foot to head. The mast's centerline may not deviate from the string or elastic's centerline by more that one inch when measured at any location along the mast.. So if the line is placed on the aft edge of the head and foot of the mast, the aft edge of the whole mast must remain within 1” of the line from top to bottom. This is to be checked with a ruler with minimum graduations of 1/16”.
Clarification of rudder shape Star 45 Class Rule 6.1
INTERPRETATION:This phrase from the Rule: " The exact shape is not specified, but they may not exceed 4 1/2 inches at the hull (fore and aft) 3 inches at the bottom, (fore and aft); and may not project more than 7 inches below the hull when measured at the post."

SHALL BE INTERPRETED TO MEAN: The top of the Star 45 rudder shall be no more the 4 ½” wide, measured fore and aft along an imaginary line located 1/8" below the bottom of the boat at the rudder post and parallel to the hull. The bottom of the Star 45 rudder shall be no more than with 3" wide, measured as follows: for a straight bottom the bottom of the rudder shall be measured; for a curved bottom, the bottom shall be measured along an imaginary line located 1/4" above the lowest point of the rudder and parallel to the waterline. The shape of the rudder between its top and bottom is not regulated by this rule, and any shape may be employed. The thickness of the rudder is not regulated. The height of the rudder shall not exceed 7', measured between the lower most point of the rudder and the top of the rudder at the rudder post.

Please note that the rudder shown by the plan is effective and is a recommended design.

APPLICATION:With the rudder on the boat, the maximum depth is measured at the post, not to exceed 7”. The width of the rudder is measured with the measuring device oriented parallel to the hull and held 1/8" below the hull. The width of the rudder along the measuring device must not exceed 4 1/2". If the bottom of the rudder is straight then the width of the bottom of the rudder shall be measured along its bottom and shall not exceed 3". If the bottom is curved the width of the bottom of the rudder shall be measured with the measuring device oriented parallel to the waterline and held 1/4" above the lowest point of the rudder. The width along the measuring device shall not exceed 3".This can also be checked with a "go/no go" gage shaped like a U 1/4" deep and 3" wide.
Clarification of Sail Numbers Star 45 Class Rule 9.1
INTERPRETATION:This phrase from the Rule: "Registration numbers shall be at least 3 inches in height and at least 3/8 inch thick. Both star and registration numbers will be placed on the upper half of the mainsail on both port and starboard sides of the mainsail and shall be positioned so as to be easily read from either side. "

SHALL BE INTERPRETED TO MEAN: A Star 45 shall display its registration number on the main sail, in a font no less than 3” tall and have a width of the dark portion of the numbers to be no less than 3/8”. The numbers shall be in the upper half of the main with starboard over port. If numbers are displayed on the jib they shall be of the same size as the main and starboard over port. The registration number should be the hull number that was provided by the class secretary, but can be different than the hull number.

Due to the difficulty in reading sail numbers in large regattas it is recommended to add the registration number to the jib as well. The numbers on the jib should be displayed in the bottom half of the jib with starboard over port.

If a country designation is displayed it should be in the bottom half of the main and starboard over port.

APPLICATION: Numbers may be measured with the sails on or off the boat or rig with a ruler with a minimum dimension of 1/16”.
Clarification of Sail Numbers Star 45 Class Rule 1.7
INTERPRETATION:This phrase from the Rule: " All fiberglass and wood hulls will have a name plate permanently attached to the inside of the hull so as to be seen when the hatch cover is removed. "

SHALL BE INTERPRETED TO MEAN: A Star 45 shall have at a minimum the following information permanently attached to the hull: Star 45 Class, AMYA Registration number ____, hull weight ____, date ____, builder ____. The registration number should be the hull number provided by the class secretary when the boat is registered. More information can be included, but is not required.

APPLICATION: This is to be checked by removing the hatch and looking for the above information. The recommended way to do this is to print the information on a pc of paper, then attach it to the hull with epoxy so it can not be removed or damaged.
Clarification of rudder post location Star 45 Class Rule 1.3
INTERPRETATION:When the following phrase " In the event of a builder choosing to scratch or hand build a Star 45 Yacht, the builder must adhere to the class approved reference and construction drawings, as obtained from the AMYA Ships Store, as in the builders ability" from rule 1.3 is applied to the rudder post location, as measured on the measurement form and shown on the plans, this phrase.

SHALL BE INTERPRETED TO MEAN: That the rudder shaft or post shall pass through a point located on the centerline of the bottom of the hull 6" forward of the point where the center of the transom meets the center of the bottom of the hull.

A rudder shaft or post larger in diameter than the thickness of the rudder is prohibited.

APPLICATION:The rudder post location can be measured with the rudder on or off the hull. A ruler or tape measure shall have the origin located where the transom and hull bottom meet at the centerline of the bottom of the hull. The 6" point shall be located within the rudder post as it exits the hull. If the rudder location is measured with the rudder off the hull, the 6" point shall be located within the rudder tube.
Guideline for Interpretation and Application of Star 45 Class Rule 10
"Scratch builders" are those who build hulls “from scratch”, i.e. From wood or wood and fiberglass over frames, and those who build boats incorporating such hulls. Builders who build boats incorporating hulls purchased from approved manufacturers are not classified as scratch builders. With regard to scratch builders, Sections 10.1.1 and 10.1.3 of the Star 45 Class Rule 10 shall be interpreted as follows:

Rule 10.1.1 states: "The builder shall send to the class secretary proof of craftsmanship, hull by means of transportation of the builder's choice."

A scratch builder can comply with the requirement to “send …proof of craftsmanship” by:

· Conveying a scratch built hull to the class secretary by mail or other means of delivery, including presentation of the hull to the class secretary by the scratch builder or his delegate; or,

· Providing to the class secretary photographic and/or other evidence of the building of the scratch built hull which, at the sole discretion of the class secretary, is acceptable to the class secretary as evidence of proof of craftsmanship.

Rule 10.1.3 states: “The class secretary will measure the hull.”

The class secretary can comply with the requirement to “measure the (scratch built) hull” by:

· Measuring the actual hull; or,

· Verifying that the scratch builder used a frame design and spacing that has been measured and approved; or,

· Employing photographic and/or other evidence of the building of the scratch built hull, submitted by the builder, in order to measure the frames or the designs of the frames used by the scratch builder, to measure the positions in which the scratch builder placed the frames within the hull, and to make whatever other measurements the class secretary deems necessary in order to determine whether the hull complies with the Rules.

APPLICATION: A scratch builder is free to sell one scratch built hull or one boat incorporating a scratch built hull without that hull having passed the class secretary’s proof of craftsmanship and measurement tests described above.

If a scratch builder intends to sell more than one scratch built hull or more than one boat incorporating a scratch built hull, he or she must pass the class secretary’s proof of craftsmanship and measurement tests prior to selling the second hull or second boat.

After a scratch built hull from the scratch builder has passed the class secretary’s proof of craftsmanship and measurement tests described above (thereby becoming an approved hull), the scratch builder may build and sell further scratch built hulls and or boats incorporating such hulls without submitting evidence of proof of craftsmanship for such further hulls or boats providing that the same techniques and dimensions used for the approved hull are used for further scratch built hull. Measurement of such further hulls incorporated in boats shall be done pursuant to Rule 1.0.
INTERPRETATION: The following language in Rule 7.2: "Keel fin shape is not specified but must follow the general shapes outlined on the reference drawing. However, keels will not be less than 6 inches nor more than 8 inches long (Fore and Aft) at the keel/hull junction, nor less than 4 inches nor more than 6 inches long (Fore and Aft) at the keel/ballast bulb junction"

Shall be interpreted to mean:

The keel shall be a single foil with no openings or holes to reduce surface area. The keel fin's forward and aft edges shall be straight lines, from the keel/hull junction to the keel/ ballast bulb junction. The fin may be faired to the hull and/or the bulb with a fillet. The radius of the fillet is not limited, but all measurements are to be taken as if the fillet is not present. For this interpretation a straight line is no more than 1/16 inch variation from a string or line between the two points. With the boat oriented so that the plan waterline is horizontal, the forward edge of the keel fin shall be angled aft, in such a manner that the forward edge of the keel fin at its junction with the hull shall be located forward of the forward edge of the keel fin at its junction with the ballast bulb. The aft edge of the keel fin shall be vertical or angled aft. The fore-and-aft dimensions of the keel fin shall be: at the junction with the hull - between 6 inches and 8 inches; at the junction with the ballast bulb - between 4 inches and 6 inches.

APPLICATION:The keel width, that is its dimension in the fore-aft direction, shall be measured with a ruler or calipers with a minimum graduation of 1/16". Dimensions at the keel/hull or keel/bulb are minimum or maximum and any deviations above the maximum or below the minimum are not allowed. The maximum at the keel/hull is 8” and the maximum at the keel/bulb is 6”. The minimum at the keel/hull is 6” and the minimum at the keel/bulb is 4”. If the junction has a fillet, the measurement is taken at the intersection as if no fillet was there. This point is found by extending the line of the straight portion of the leading edge or the trailing edge until it meets the hull or bulb. This may be marked using a pencil or masking tape to facilitate measurement.

If there is a need to check for straightness of the fore and aft edges of the keel fin, a ruler or straight edge shall be placed against the fore and aft edges of the keel fin, so that one end of the ruler originates as closely as possible to the junction of the keel fin with the hull and so that the other end of the ruler rests against the highest point on the keel fin's edge or as close as possible to the keel fin's junction with the ballast bulb (whichever causes the largest gap between the keel fin's edge and the ruler.) The keel fin edge should be straight enough that a 1/16 inch diameter wire should not be able to pass between the straight edge and the keel fin at any point. If the junctions between the keel fin and the hull or the keel fin and the ballast bulb are filled-in with a fillet of material, to form a concave junction between surfaces, the straightness of the keel fin edge shall be measured between the fillets, that is by disregarding the curved fillet surfaces.

Due to the width limitations it is only necessary to verify the slope of the aft edge of the keel, as the forward edge will be aft sloped if the aft edge of the keel is vertical or aft swept. If verification of the sweep of the keel is necessary it may be done by either of two methods. Method one, A quick verification may be done by measuring the angle between the hull and fin. If the angle is less than 90 deg between the hull and the aft edge of the fin, the fin is aft swept. This can be done with a protractor or a 90 deg square. Method two, Level the hull so that it sits on the plan water line. The waterline location can be found by marking a point at 1-1/16” inches from the transom to hull junction and at 37-5/8” inches from the transom to hull junction. The hull is level when these two points are equal distance from a level surface. To verify the angle of the fin a plum bob is dropped from the keel/hull junction at the aft edge of the fin. If the junction has a fillet, the top of the plum bob line is located as if no fillet were there. To be aft or vertical swept the plum bob point at the bottom of the plumb bob line shall point to a position equal to or forward of the keel/bulb junction (or, if a fillet is present, forward of the place where the keel/bulb junction would be if no fillet were there.)

The Mainwaring keel profile is acceptable, being smaller than the maximum size and larger than the minimum dimensions.

Tuesday, April 28, 2009

[Star45] Winch? Which Winch?

Winch? Which Winch?
From: "Douglas" Subject: [Star45] Winch? Which Winch?

Is the Hitec HS-785HB Sail Winch Servo enough for the star or is the RMG the must have for the star? Is there any other options, better options with regards to a drum servo? Is the drum the best choice? What's your opinion, I'd very much appreciate it?

From: "jfisher"

I have not use an arm winch for years, but one difference I found was that they tend to use more power than the RMG. I usually use about 600 mah in 3 hours of sailing with an RMG. So I run 1340 lipo’s and swap at lunch on a big regatta or not at all on club days. Only 80g for the battery. I usually use more battery out of the TX than the boat.

I also don’t like that the power of an arm winch changes depending of your sheeting. On my M it used to sheet out while reaching on the puffs. With the RMG this doesn’t happen. I have considered the new digital ¼ scale servo’s since they are super fast. Now you can gybe without losing speed.

If you want a cheap drum and have not used an RMG before the Hitech drum winch is a good choice, about $50. But once you sail with an RMG with its quicker speed you wont want to go back. Also you will need a more advanced radio to change the sheeting length as it only turn 3.5 turns, while the RMG has programmable travel.

From: Larry Ludwig

The Futaba 5801 is an excellent choice for the Star 45, and has one particularly nice feature in the form of a set screw that allows you to dial the travel length right there with the winch installed. It is also considerbly cheaper. The winch retails for $149.00 from and they have a special right now for a $150 order take off $15.00 so $135.00 and it may even qualify for free shipping. Smoking deal.

Personally, I prefer a swing arm over the drum winches because of reliability. I know several guys that swear that they have never had a drum "spool off" but I am the opposite, I have never had one that did NOT spool off at one point. Just my .02 but I don't know of a swing arm winch that I like for the Star, they are either too big or too small. If I was to pick one, I would say the Ozman or Probar, I think those are still available.

posted by Dave_Mainwaring  # Tuesday, April 28, 2009

Wednesday, December 31, 2008

Now come the questions... ;-) 12.28.08


I'm going to order a CPM keel bulb and I'm wondering how it will attach to the plywood Mainwaring keel. I don't want to start sanding and fairing the keel until I know how that's going to work.
"Dave Mainwaring"

Here is how I mounted an aluminum fin to the hull so that it could be removed (interchangeable keels) ths method should also work for wooden fins.

Dave Mainwaring

"J Fisher"

Here is how I attach the bulb. First I mark the center of gravity of the bulb. This is done by balancing the bulb on a small PC of rod. Once I have the CG located, I float the boat with the lead on top of the deck. Then adjust the bulb location until the transom is just out of the water. The bulb CG can then be measured in reference to the keel bolts. The fin is already to max depth so it should go through to the bottom of the bulb when fitted. Also the bulb seems to have an upward tip already so I just have it sit on the table for correct tilt with the fin sitting vertical.

I then trim the hole in the bulb and the fin until the bulb ends up in the right spot. The fin is easier to cut than the bulb. I use a chisel and file to enlarge the hole in the bulb. The fin is pretty much completed by this time, i.e. Shaped and glassed. Once everything fits correctly, I place the fin into the bulb and drill a hole for the roll pin or pins depending on the fin location (see note below). I install the pin, then use something like steel epoxy to fill the bottom of the hole. It is a two part epoxy clay that you buy in a roll, cut to length then mash together to cure. I use the under water version which is white. Once the bottom of the bulb is closed off, I pour in epoxy from the top to full any voids and seal everything. Then I fair the keel to the bulb with more of the epoxy clay. Then sand and paint.

To prep the bulb I use my orbital sander to sand down the bulb and remove any imperfections. This goes really fast with the sander. Please take appropriate caution when dealing with lead, wear a respirator and wash hands before eating. Once it is mounted I coat with epoxy then sand smooth.

Since I put my fins farther aft than the current plan location my bulbs end up sticking pretty far forward of the fin. About 1" further aft than the plans. I used the same location as Scott Rowland does in his tuning guide. This location seems to work well for heavy air, but does require you to steer the boat down wind. It also adds some lee helm in the really light stuff requiring the rig to be moved well aft to balance. With traveling to regatta's you never know what the wind will be like so I need a good all around boat. I would make a different choice if I always sailed in light conditions.



I just want to add a couple of things to John Fisher's great answer:
When drilling lead, use a generous amount of cutting fluid (the kind used for lubricating dies when cutting threads in pipe). This will make the drilling easy and prevent the bit from binding in the lead.
Should you waterproof inside the hull? YES. Even the dryest boats get some water inside, and it will be absorbed by the planking if the planking is not waterproofed. You want to be able to drain any water that gets inside, not have it increase the weight of the boat. Two coats of epoxy are recommended on all interior wood surfaces not otherwise waterproofed.
"J Fisher"

When I work with the lead bulbs I try not to do anything that requires machining or drilling the lead. The CPM bulb already has a hole for the roll pins and the fin, so you don't have to drill any holes in the lead, just the keel. Lead is so soft that it quickly gums up any cutting tool. Using coolant (water) or cutting oil (plain cooking oil works well) helps, but is messy. With this in mind the last two bulbs I used had the slot opened up with a combination file/chisel I got at Lowes. This was not a quick process but it did work pretty well. A plain wood rasp would probably also work fine. I have also heard that a sherform works well for shaping lead.


I recently had to change the shape of the keel slot in a lead bulb made in two halves by Phil Runquist, a beautiful dolphin shaped bulb.

The best thing I've found for cutting lead is a common woodworking chisel and a mallet. Lead shaves as easily as wood, and you have total control of the cut by the angle at which you hold the tool. Narrow chisels are easier to use than wide ones. It is best if you build a little jig to hold the bulb stationary while you pound on the chisel.

I mixed the lead shavings with JB Weld (epoxy containing iron powder) and put them back into areas of the slot that needed closing up.

If I have to sand lead, I do it under water, by hand, using wet-or-dry sandpaper, wearing rubber gloves.

The water keeps the lead from dusting and contains it for collection or disposal, keeping it out of your body.

It is important to be meticulous about protecting yourself from lead contamination.

Ed Hilton

I am planning on casting my own keel. How much do most of the keels weigh for these boats.

Larry Ludwig

I would just want to remind all of you guys that are working with lead that it is extremely toxic, and should never be handled without gloves. You should avoid any skin contact with lead period. Also, if you are planning on casting lead, you should do it OUTSIDE and I mean WAY outside, where the fumes are going away from you. If you can smell it, it can poison you, that is the simple rule. Obviously away from children/pets. When I cast lead I have two large shop fans that I use behind me to make certain that the fumes are moving away. I simply cannot stress strongly enough that this stuff, as with certain paints, and cutting carbon fiber can and will reduce your lifespan, or make what you have left miserable.

Ed Hilton

In planning to cast my own blub, How long are your blubs and what is the diameter?

"Dave Mainwaring"

Here is a earlier post on casting bulbs:

Wednesday, July 05, 2006

Star 45 R/C model sail boat , making a keel bulb mold and Castings

From Jim Adams:

I made a plug from balsa and finished it to a smooth finish second I used two aluminum pans (the kind that you throw away) I filled the first one with plaster took the bulb (well waxed) and placed it in the plaster half way in I used two pins through the center to hold it down. let that dry then pull out the plug next put thin saran wrap over the mold and place the plug back in the hole.

Now comes the fun part I used rubber bands to hold the plug in place (remember I had two pins that extend past the mold walls) next fill the second pan with plaster and lay the first on top it is kind of messy but it works. When the second half dries (about two hours) pull them apart. You will need to plug the holes at the ends on the sides and create small air path upward in the and a spur (looks like a funnel when you are done this needs to be big enough to pour in the led) at the end.

Billie Geisler's comments regarding "Keel Bulbs 2006 August 1:

I advise against using tire weights for ballast bulbs, because the tire weights seem to be some sort of alloy, and not pure lead. The markings on the weights are a good indicator, as different physically sized weights have the same ounce values stamped on them. So, if you use tire weights, you will have a physically larger bulb to achieve the necessary weight, thus more wetted surface friction, resistance through the water.

I go to the plumbing supply store to buy lead. This lead is much denser than tire weights. The lead comes in various shapes, some like hocky pucks, and some like Snickers bars. The Snickers bars fit into my lead pot better.

Incidentally, fishing supply stores sometimes carry electric lead pots, along with fishing weight molds. Good use for your tire weights. I was lucky enough to find a lead pot at a garage sale, sold by a rifleman who no longer cast his own bullets.

Consider mounting the ballast bulb on the keel fin at an angle, about 1 to 3 degrees up at the front. You can find info on performance of this arrangement on some IOM sites. It makes a substantial difference in boat speed on an IOM.

I cast my bulbs in two plaster of paris molds. One mold for the outer cheeks of the bulb(split fore and aft), and one for a center peice, to go between the cheeks. The thin (about 1/8 inch thick) center peice can be easily cut for fitting the fin, and drilled for adjusting the weight. If I need filler, I mix buckshot with epoxy. I can rough sand the lead with a belt sander, with very course belt. The course belt doesn't fill with lead.

Terry Harmer

When I finish a lead bulb I wait until it is on the fin, then I:

Scrape off the rough edges with a knife.
Wipe it thoroughly with alcohol.
Pad the fin and put it in a vise with the small end of the bulb pointing down.
Put a bucket with water right underneath the bulb.
Mix a batch of epoxy and just drip it over the top of the bulb until the bulb is covered.
(The excess epoxy drips off the small end and into the bucket, jar, or whatever.
When cured, I repeat.
When done, you have an almost perfect coating over the bulb.

Now just fill any minor dips, sand and paint.

This ensures that I don't mess with the raw let much.

"J Fisher"

I would use around 8 lbs if you plan on sailing in heavy air. If you sail in light air, you can probably get away with a bulb down to 7lbs. I think the blackwells are all about 7.5 lbs. The latest CPM bulbs have been right about 8.5 lbs and the Skid-Do bulbs seemed to be right about 8 lbs.

With the top several boats in the last 2 nationals being well over the 12 lb minimum I don't think overall boat weight is super critical. I do think that having enough lead is more critical than the overall boat weight.

"Dave Mainwaring"
Someone asked about shapes an sizes.

I like keels that resemble in some manner the "Scheel Keel". Flat bottoms help fight heeling. My version was based on my sailing in waters with lilies and pond grass that snagged torpedo shaped bulbs. I liked being able to back away and have the crap slide off the keel.

Here is a photo of the original Mainwaring Keel ad Mainwaring Bulb

Saturday, November 15, 2008

Drum Servo with Jib Tweaker from Dave Ramos

From: David Ramos To:
Sent: Fri, 14 Nov 2008 10:23 am
The following photos show my set up for a drum servo and jib tweaker.

Main sheet is 2:1 and jib sheet is 1:1

Hope this helps
David Ramos
Chesapeake Performance Models
227 Main Street
Stevensville, MD 21666

Tuesday, September 09, 2008

fiberglass notes

Date: Tue, 20 Nov 2007 11:48:10 -0700 (MST)
Subject: Re: [Star45] Fiber glass vs just sealing the boat

Based on the damage to Phil's boat at the blackwell, I would not recommend
a bare balsa hull. If glass is hard to find, use pantyhose as your
fabric. You should seal the hull with epoxy and the glass adds a small
amount of weight.

my next boats are going to be 1/16 ply sides, 3/32 cedar bottoms and then
a .5 oz layer of glass over the bottom. I think the sides should either
be ply or have glass to prevent punctures in the case of contact. Decks
will be 1/64 ply that is painted. The decks are weak and if I get hit
while heeled over I could get holed, but that is a risk I am willing to

My boats with the two layers of 3.2 oz glass over balsa have held up well.
They have been hit and the damage has been limited to the deck where the
rails flexed when hit.


fiberlass notes

Date: Mon, 1 Oct 2007 23:50:17 +0000
Subject: Re: [Star45] Re: Epoxy Finish

Larry Very well said I could not agree with you more.
I would add to your paint selections with Chromabase\Chromaclear by DuPont. This is a two stage auto paint with a base coat \ clear coat. I have used it for the past five years and it is great. Base cost can be made in any color and dries in 15min to the point that you can tape it to add a second color or more layers of colors. The clear coat is an epoxy and is formulated to bond with the base coat, becomes touchable in an hour so it keeps dust contamination to a min. Also because there is no clear in the base coat the layers are thinner and if you do two light coats of clear, let set overnight and then wetsand with 320 and spray one last coat the next day the seam or step between colors is invisable and the finish is very very hard. I agree that Imron is fantastic stuff but would not recomend it to the hobbiest because it can cause lung failure. If you can smell it you have smelled too much. That includes the outgassing during drying. If you realy want to use it, take your boat to an autobody shop the uses it and give them a six pack of beer and have the spray your boat before he empties the gun. They will toss more paint then is needed to paint one of our boats.
Hope this helps!
Dave Ramos

fiberlass notes

From: "John F. Howard"
Date: Mon, 1 Oct 2007 10:08:21 -0500
Subject: RE: [Star45] Re: Epoxy Finish

Al, Epoxies stink a lot less than polyester resins (saves problems with the other half, neighbors etc) Epoxies can be clear to allow the wood to show thru (they will need a coat of UV Varnish to protect them or the epoxy will turn amber), polyester resin is not clear, usually has a green or blue non-transparent tint. Epoxies have a greater adhesion to wood Epoxies are a little softer than polyester, but for our use the difference can’t be seen or felt. Epoxies have a longer pot life and working time Epoxies are a little more flexible in the mix ratio (one or 2 drops one way or the other won’t make a difference with epoxy where a drop too much or too little of catalyst with polyester can make it set up too quick or not at all). Epoxies cost more than polyester, but the above advantages out way the cost. Epoxies do not expand like the polyurethane glues (Gorilla Glue) and additives can be used to modify the strength (colloidal silica for strength, micro balloons to lighten and make sanding of fillets easier) Epoxies take less fill coats over fiberglass than polyurethane (water or solvent based) Those are just a few reasons off the top of my head and I am sure there are more pro and con.

fiberglass notes

Date: Thu, 20 Sep 2007 11:57:30 EDT
Subject: Re: [Star45] Epoxy Finish

Please be aware that epoxy is not imune to the damaging effects of sunlight.
Sunlight (especially the UV wavelengths) destroy epoxy.
You must varnish (using a varnish containing sunscreen, such as Spar varnish) or paint epoxy to protect it from sunlight.
Kind regards,
Phil Geren

fiberglass notes

From: Terry Forbes
Date: Thu, 20 Sep 2007 06:53:07 -0700 (PDT)
Subject: Re: [Star45] Epoxy Finish

Hi Kathy: Terry is south Florida. I have had this problem with one of my sons boats. We took the boat and removed all the hardware and fittings and wet sanded it down with 220 - 400 grit paper. We then mask off the deck as it is wood strips with clear spar varnish. We used Spray Poof Cans of Plasti-Coat from K-Mart. We used white primer with sanding and then a finish coat of white gloss. This finish is light and holds up well here in Florida. We sail in fresh and salt water. My older son's and my boat has Interlux white boat paint for the finish. We used foam brushes and thinned the paint so that it flowed out leaving a really nice glossy finish. We gave our hulls two coats with wet sanding between applications. We did not use any primer and put the paint directly on the epoxy finish. You will wan! t to wipe the hull down with the interlux cleaner prior to painting. You can see two or our boats in the photos "Terry's Lucky Star" The white boat has the interlux and the yellow hull is plasti-coat. Happy sailing Terry

clandergan wrote: Hi, When I came back to school from the summer I had a surprise. One of the boats we had painted white was now yellow brown. It seams that as the epoxy cures, it gets a lot darker. Do you hav! e any thoughts on how one gets a nice white finish? How would I go about rescuing this boat? Thanks, Cathy

fiberglass notes

From: "David Ramos"
Date: Mon, 10 Sep 2007 11:25:22 -0400
Subject: RE: [Star45] Fiberglass deformation from cradle

Mitch You might try taking a hair dryer and GENTLY heat the hull in the area of deformation and if you can reach it on the inside press the hull out. You want to just heat the hull in the area around the deformation enough to get it to relax a bit. Be careful to not scorch the hull. Take your time and then let it set upside down to cool. I used this technique (but used a heat gun) to fix an older EC12 that did the same thing. Was your keel attached? If so make some sort of support to take the weight of the keel and use the hull cradle to keep it on the wall but not support the weight of the boat.

fiberglass notes

From: "J Fisher"
Date: Mon, 10 Sep 2007 08:17:20 -0700 (Mountain Standard Time)
Subject: Re: [Star45] Fiberglass deformation from cradle

Mitch, Unfortunately there is nothing I have found that will undo the damage. It is a problem with fiberglass hulls. If you apply force and heat them up they will take on a new shape. I have this happen in the cradle like you did and in the car. I have had my M fins warp from sitting in the car while I sail. If you can apply heat and some opposite pressure you might be able to get the line out, but most likely it is permanent. John

fiberlass notes

From: "Mitch Martin"
Date: Mon, 10 Sep 2007 13:40:17 -0000
Subject: [Star45] Fiberglass deformation from cradle

I cleaned my garage a few weeks ago and moved my Blackwell Star from
the cradle which supported the hull with straps to a wall mount that
uses shelf arms covered in foam. The hull is now indented about 3
inches forward of the rudder post. I have turned the boat over so it
is now sitting on the deck, and hopefully this will fix the problem
over time.

Has anybody had the same problem and what did you do to repair it?


fiberlass notes

From: Dave Mainwaring
Date: Mon, 29 Jan 2007 18:06:15 -0500
Subject: Re: [Star45] Re: Construction question

so it can be sanded easily and keep the weight down.

Depending on the size of the gaps a couple of choices would be:
automotive spot putty is good, not bothered by epoxy or poly and sandable.
Another would be using automotive "Bondo" putty which is a resin with filler used for autobody work.

Micro and macro balloons both glass and phenolic mixed in resin are good also. Balloons may be difficult to find and they are a little like working with talcum powder, stuff is so light it flies around:)

I've used a lot of spot putty over the years you can get the stuff at any auto parts store that sells touch up paint. I still use it around the house for filling nicks in painted surfaces that get scratched. I think it is acrylic based, smells like acrylic lacquer.

I also have used a lot of Bondo over the years since it strong (hardens like a rock) and can be used to fillet pieces of wood in place. Mix a lump of Bondo with a smidge of Bondo hardener, use your finger to run a bead down along side the joint and in minutes it is ready to sand and paint if outside the hull.

Long and uneven gaps on a 45 inch model can't call for a lot of filler.

I've know big boat builders who make resin-foam blocks using pasta :) to add air in the resin to fill floatation areas.

If you have large gaps (1/8 inch or more) then that is another issue. You can also use a can of spray-in foam from Home Depot if you have serious gaps and then scrape off the hardened foam when the crack is filled. Hopefully the workmanship has left not been that .....

Seriously, how much weight can a crack filler add to the hull's weight?

Uncle D.

fiberlass notes

From: "John Howard"
Date: Sat, 27 Jan 2007 17:03:19 -0000
Subject: [Star45] Re: Epoxy resins and hardeners for glassing hulls

Dave, Sticker shock, ouch? West Systems Epoxy is expensive but good stuff. The quart size will work for several hulls, so buy only what you need, it has a fairly long shelf life if store properly ( a couple of years, not 20). Check the West Systems web page under product info . Lots of good info, but a lot of reading also. The nice thing about epoxy is the low or nearly non-existant oder. The bad thing, some people can be come sensitized to it so wearing gloves, a mask (organic vapor type), a long sleeve shirt, etc. is recommended. More info on the web site. The fiberglass, 9 oz., seems heavy IMHO, 2 layers may be overkill and give you a floating tank. Are you planning on running over the competition and win by atrition? :) That's if you can catch the lighter boats.

I would use a max of 6 oz. cloth. Check and see what others say. Suggest you start with 2 oz. for the first batch and adjust as you go, you will soon figure out how much you need for the hull and the weight of the glass you are using. Get and use the pumps, it makes measuring out the correct ratio so much easier. West Systems, using the 105 Resin with either 205 Fast Hardener (9-12 min working) or 206 Slow Hardener (20-25 min working) will give you enough time to mix additional resin if needed. As long as the additional resin is applied to the first batch while still green (soft) there will be no problem as the new batch will still chemically bond with the previous batch. Once the resin has hardened completly, it will need to be sanded to provide a surface that will mechanically bond to the next resin coat. Cedar Strip Canoe builders do it (mix additional resin) all the time when they fiberglass a hull. Pot life for mixed epoxy can be extended slightly by pouring it into a shallow container (pie pan). Left in a mixing cup, the heat generated by the chemical reaction during curing will set up faster and unused (left over) epoxy can get hot enough to melt a plastic container/cup. Recomend not to use alcohol for thinning, it will change the chemical properties of the epoxy, weakening its strength and water resistance and if too much is used, may not set up.

If you need to thin the epoxy, warm the surface (hull) with a heat gun, this will thin it out and also speed up (lessen the working time) the curing time. When I fuel proof a model airplane, I put the epoxy on straight and then hit it briefly with the heat gun. You do not need to raise the temperature much. As you apply heat, you will see it thin and spread. When cooled, the epoxy will have all of its original strength and water resistance. Denatured Alcohol has no water in it, unlike your drugstore Isopropyl Alcohol 70%(Rubbing Alcohol) which can have up to 30% water in it. Isopropyl is also available as 90%. Use Denatured Alcohol, Acetone or Lacquer Thinner for clean up and depose of the materials (rags, paper towels, gloves and uncured resins and hardeners) properly. See the West Systems web page for more info under the Tab: Using West Systems Epoxy. There are other epoxy systems out there such a MAS, System 3, RAKA and others, but I do not have experience with these brands, West Systems is as close as my local marine supply store. You might also check some of the model shops for Zap Z-poxy finishing resin, don't know how well it will work or the cost in comparison, but some model airplaners use it. Hope I haven't scared you off from fiberglassing you hull. It is easy and safe IF you follow precautions. Good Luck. John

fiberglass notes

Date: Sat, 27 Jan 2007 09:00:27 -0700 (Mountain Standard Time)
Subject: Re: [Star45] Epoxy resins and hardeners for glassing hulls

The best way to save $$ on epoxy is buy larger containers. I used to buy the qt's and now I buy the gallon resin and qt hardner. I use 10 to 12 pumps which I am told is 1 oz/pump to do 2 layers of 3 oz cloth. So one layer of 9 would be 15 to 18 pumps. So one quart will do more than one hull, probably 2 or 3 if you stretch it. I use IPA to thin the epoxy for sealing the inside, but I would not do that on the outside with glass. If the epoxy gets too thin you get a lot of pin holes. You can also make the epoxy thinner by adding heat with a hair dryer. Adding heat will make it kick faster, so this can really impact your pot life on the 205 hardner. Also tall narrow containers will reduce pot life. I used 207 which is the most UV stable hardner on my last hull. John -------Original Message------- From: davemainwaring Date: 1/27/2007 8:29:33 AM To: Subject: [Star45] Epoxy resins and hardeners for glassing hulls Having not purchased resin for twenty years it heart stopping to see
the current prices. What is the best way to save on buying resin and

How much resin is needed to saturate one or two layers of 9oz cloth on
a Star45 hull?

Will a quart of west 105 and .44pt 206 hardener do more than one

An earlier post mentioned thinning epoxy with alcohol.
Good idea yes/no? What is needed for clean up?h

Uncle Dave

fiberglass notes

Date: Fri, 26 Jan 2007 08:19:49 -0700 (Mountain Standard Time)
Subject: Re: [Star45] muslin in place of fiberglass, vac bagging

Dave, I have not heard on using muslin in that manner, but I do know the glider guys use very light glass and then paint it with polyurethane instead of resin. On the food sealers, I just use the standard bags, cheaper the better. To get the air to move I use a release cloth and breather. You can buy the actual stuff or use paper towels as a breather and wax paper with holes in it as release cloth. I am not sure the food sealers are big enough to do a hull, but they work great for small parts.

fiberlass notes

Date: Wed, 1 Nov 2006 16:36:47 -0700 (MST)
Subject: Re: [Star45] Re: foam cored hull

We were concerned with having something resembling a one design model with three possible hull materials. There were, at that time, modelers building other class hulls with the exterior being only model airplane shrink wrap plastics and the concern was "what if" the entire framing was covered with mono-coat or some shrink material. I recall this also was one of the reasons that accounts for the hull weight be set at 16oz. Adding foam inside as a foam core plus wood or fiberglass or a combination of wood and fiberglass might make the completed hull a tad heavy??
The foam is light and adds more stiffness than adding a enough glass to get the same stiffness. The CPM deck is a glass with foam layup and at 10 oz or so is lighter than a sheet of 1/16th ply which is not nearly as stiff.
I don't see any specs addressing specifically in the area where the keel bolts are attached, which spreads out the loads associated with this high stress area. How would foam without some sort of glassing or wood lamination spread the high stresses from the keel fin?
The foam gives the glass structure so it isnt a thin flat pc supporting the weight of the keel. With 2 layers of glass 1/4" apart the bottom is very stiff and the load is spread over a large area. Real boats use foam or end grain balsa to do the same thing. Glass is not as stiff as wood. Its stronger, but not stiffer. So when you add a light filler like balsa to give the glass a shape that is stiff, you get a light strong structure.

fiberglass notes

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Date: Mon, 16 Oct 2006 08:16:42 -0600 (MDT)
Subject: Re: [Star45] FRP molded hulls and fiber-glassed hulls

Molded hulls can be done either way, with gel coat or without. Depends on the mold.

Priming depends on the paint system. Some of the rattle can paints do not need a primer.

There is mold release on a hull after molding. A hull needs to be washed and sanded before gluing anything to it or painting.


fiberlass notes

Date: Mon, 16 Oct 2006 09:33:54 -0400
Subject: [Star45] FRP molded hulls and fiber-glassed hulls

Are molded hulls gel-coated or are the outsides bare-resin?

Are fiberglass hulls primed then painted?
In the case of hulls pulled from a mold do they still have mold release on the surface?

fiberlass notes

Mitch, I have used the 3.2 oz satin weave on 7 boats now. The first was a single layer and now that hull is 4 or 5 years olds it is showing wear and tear. I went to using 2 layers to help with durability and to have more material for sanding. Another thing I like about the cloth is that is drapes very nicely and easily will cover the hull with one pc. On my 10R's I have used 2 yards folded in half to do the hull. On the star I was concerned that it would be too wide for a single yard. I ended up with more than enough material so I cut it on the diagonal. The glassing starts by laying the glass over the hull. Then I smooth it out so there are no wrinkles. This may take a couple of min. Then I repeat with the next layer. Once the glass is smooth, time for epoxy. I used the 209/105 west systems combination. I used about 10 pumps of material. I start applying resin to the middle of the bottom with a cheap paint brush. Then I work my way out to the edges of the bottom. Next I do the sides. You need to use lots of resin and dont pull too much or you will pucker the cloth. Once everything is wetted out I go back with a squigee and remove the excess resin. Dont get to carried away or the cloth will go dry again. If in doubt of how this should look practice on a spare block of wood first to get a feel for how the cloth looks as you take out resin. I did the glassing at about 8 pm and with the 105/209 the resin is still green at 7 am the next morning. When green the glass can be trimmed with a #11 blade in a hobby knife. Then wait another day or two until sanding for full cure. I dont like to do much sanding, instead I try and do most of my fairing by using a thick primer and sanding most of it off between coats. For a clear boat I use polyurethane for a top coat. John

fiberglass notes

Date: Wed, 2 Aug 2006 16:13:37 -0600 (MDT)
Subject: Re: [Star45] plugs and moulds

For the hulls I have laid up we have never used gel coat, just pva then lay up the hull. You do need to wash and sand the hulls afterword to remove the pva or nothing will stick. For a male mold you have to wash in inside of the hull before gluing anything in.
I have a lot of experiance using silicone molds. used to work at a PUR molder who used silicone tools exclusively. They offer great detail reproduction and the ability to die lock the part with no ill effect. The down side is that the silicone wears out. We used to get 30 to 80 turns per silicone before making another one. The silicone is also compressable so if you are vac bagging it may change the hull size slightly.

fiberglass notes

Date: Tue, 1 Aug 2006 09:48:06 -0600 (MDT)
Subject: Re: [Star45] Comments about keel bulbs, glue, etc.

I use a myweigh 300 scale and mix the epoxy on
the scale. I found for my true 5 min epoxy I had to get a 1-1 mix or it
would not cure correctly. The scale is about $22 and can handle up to
300g with .1g resolution. Also they make mixing pads that are a coated
paper to prevent bleed and the pad has a foam backing so it doesnt move on
the table. I was given a couple of pads and they are great for mixing
small amounts of epoxy, just put them on the scale, add hard and resin in
equal weights.


fiberglass notes

You can also use polyurethane varnish if you are going to use the light
glass instead of epoxy. Personally I have a hard time dealing with glass
that is lighter than 2 oz/yard. If you have a vacuum chamber you can vac
down the mixed epoxy to remove bubbles. The heat will thin the epoxy and
make it kick off faster.


fiberglass notes

Date: Tue, 1 Aug 2006 08:06:22 -0600 (MDT)
Subject: Re: [Star45] Re: Glues and adhesives, wooden boats, fiberglass-wood

The pot life with the 105/209 is 40 min or so. I have used that
combination when doing vac bagging and it allowed plenty of time to wet
out the fabric on a 60" boat, then apply mastic, then the bagging
materials, then pull the air out. I have also done 72" long 10R's and had
no issues with the pot life. Now I am usually about 70 deg, so that slows
it down some too.
Now the 105/205 can be more in the 10 to 20 min range depending on temp.
Also how deep the container is that you mix the epoxy will influence the
cure time. Deeper is faster.


fiberglass notes

From: "John F. Howard"
Date: Tue, 1 Aug 2006 08:18:55 -0500
Subject: RE: [Star45] Re: Glues and adhesives, wooden boats, fiberglass-wood

2. Heating epoxy – Heating the epoxy or surface will cause the epoxy to thin out a bit to help soak into the wood and joints. It will also shorten the pot life (working time). Strip Canoe/Kayak builders recommend applying the first coat of epoxy late in the day as the hull is cooling to help prevent air bubbles. Second or more coats are added to the first in the green stage or well sanded if applied later. Final finish on the canoes is varnish to protect the epoxy from UV rays. On my model airplane fuselages, I used a very slow (2 hour) resin, thinned, to apply the .5 oz cloth and did not heat it, came out nice.

4. Epoxy Cure Rates – Pick up a West Systems User Manual (or look at it online). West hardeners pot life times (at 72 degrees) are; 205 – 9-12 min, 206 – 20-25 min, 207 – 22-27 min, 209 – 40-50 min. Ambient temperature will affect these times, higher temp faster set up (shorter pot life). To extend the pot life a little, after mixing the resin in a cup, pour the resin into a flat container (pie pan). Keeping the resin in the cup as a thick mass will generate more heat and set up faster; the pie pan allows the heat to escape and extends your time. Thinning the epoxy will not extend your time, only allow it to flow and penetrate better.

fiberglass notes

Date: Tue, 1 Aug 2006 07:54:46 EDT
Subject: Re: [Star45] Re: Glues and adhesives, wooden boats, fiberglass-wood

What kind of set-up (hardening) times are you achieving with West epoxies and thinned (with IPA) West epoxies?
I have not been successful trying to cover large areas with fiberglass cloth, because the epoxy, even the "slow" Flex Coat stuff sold for fishing rod construction, starts to harden before I can get the surface coated and the cloth smoothed out. I have made some awful messes.
Phil Geren

fiberglass notes

From: "Mitch Martin"
Date: Tue, 01 Aug 2006 12:59:10 -0000
Subject: [Star45] Re: Glues and adhesives, wooden boats, fiberglass-wood

I have not tried to thin WEST with IPA. I have thinned regular epoxy
with IPA and it seemed to work OK. The only place I can think of
thinning the WEST is painting the interior of the hull for water

Working with WEST is similar to polyester resin, but it is stronger,
doesn't smell bad, and hardeners can be selected for your
application. For example if I was mixing the epoxy for glassing a
hull that would eventially be painted I would select the extra-slow
hardener 209 which has a pot life of 45 minutes. That's much longer
than a polyester resin pot life. The down side is the cost, it's
pretty pricy stuff. Another trick is to mix in the graphite powder
and it gives the finish a carbon fiber look. Take a look at this
flash movie of a woodie US1M with graphite look deck. Thanks go to
Bill Jennings on the US1M site.

Instructions for downloading US1M progress flash movie.
In order to run this file you need Macromedias free Flash Player:

Go to
Click on the US 1M flash movie folder
Right click on Match Stick Progress, select Save Target As… and select
a location to save the file to on your hard drive.

To play the movie open the file, and press Ctrl+F
To quit the movie press Ctrl+Q


fiberglass notes

From: "Mitch Martin"
Date: Mon, 31 Jul 2006 16:22:23 -0000
Subject: [Star45] Re: Glues and adhesives, wooden boats, fiberglass-wood

I agree that WEST epoxy is the best for coating wood to make it
water tight and added strength. Gougeon Brothers have books out for
full scale boat building utilizing WEST epoxy that are excellent.
My personal preference is the 209 hardener and 207 for anything that
needs a clear coat. Use this for fiberglassing the hull too as the
polyester resins do not have as much strength.

fiberglass notes

From: "John F. Howard"
Date: Mon, 31 Jul 2006 14:03:24 -0500
Subject: RE: [Star45] Re: Glues and adhesives, wooden boats, fiberglass-wood

If you use epoxy resin such as West Systems (best, you can adjust the cure rate with the different hardeners) or one of the 30-minute or longer (5-15 minute never gets hard and remains rubbery) such as sold by Great Planes or Tower, stink will not be a problem. The polyester resin does STINK in a big way, it what you can smell in a new fiberglass hull. CA glues are ok for “tacking” stuff in place until the epoxy sets up, but watch the fumes. CA will fail if used in a wet location for long and also cause a problem with the wood accepting stain. Work with plenty of ventilation and or respirator and wear gloves with any of the above glues and resins, staining of the skin and sensitivity, either skin and or breathing can occur. Good Luck

fiberglass notes for S45 Yahoo Forum

Date: Mon, 31 Jul 2006 13:35:37 -0600 (MDT)
Subject: Re: [Star45] Re: Glues and adhesives, wooden boats,

Epoxy is not all that smelly, but I still use a resperator while working
with it. I hope I dont generate a sensetivity to it in my lifetime.

the deck can be flat or curved. the plans show both designs. Luckily the
curved deck in only curved side to side, so it could be done flat them
bent over the hull.


> I am trying at all costs to avoid working with glass and poly-resin. I am
> considering some small molded pieces using epoxy and glass to see how bad
> the resin stinks up the place X;{
> Epoxies and such can mess up wood so it won't take stain. The striped
> decks so very nice. Could one make the deck up as a unit off the model and
> then fit it to the hull. Having a urethane glue between planks would give
> the part a fair degree of flexibility. With the new Star 45 Plans are
> the decks flat or cambered? As I recall the hull bottom could be a tad
> tricky to plank. Fiberglass hulls are so easy to put together:) But wood
> rocks!

Fiberglassing notes

From: JFisher
Sent: Tue, 9 Sep 2008 12:03 pm
Subject: RE: [Star45] New Member Introduction

Welcome. In regards to the bunching at the corners, I use a light coat of 3m77 to hold things in place after cutting the folds so they will lay flat. I cut the bottom glass so that it doesn’t wrap the transom, then make a patch that covers the transom and about 1� of the bottom/sides. Same with the bow. I usually do two extra layers of glass at the bow and transom. The glass turns pretty much clear when wetted out so you don’t see the extra glass unless you look really hard. It is slightly thicker and slightly more green. I think have posted a few photos showing the reinforcements. The 3m77 seems to be key to=2 0getting the glass to stay put, but it can discolor the glass is used excessively. It will also move a little when wetted out since the epoxy seems to break down the 77’s adhesive properties.

For the fin/keel, I sand to shape, then wrap with glass (2 or 3 layers of 3 oz on the fin and 1 or 2 layers on the rudder depends how much you sand) that is held in place with 3m77 (light spray or it will show up in the glass.) I then liberally cover with resin, then vac bag with my handy food saver. Vac bagging can be done with commercial peel ply and breather or wax paper and paper towels. Just make sure to poke holes in the wax paper. Sand smooth again, then paint or if going clear I used system 3 clear coat epoxy to build the finish, then sanded again, then clear coat again, then sand, then varnish. I used the clear coat on the hull as well since it fills the minor lumps and bumps without as many coats to paint/sand as varnish.

If think you need practice, I would take a pc of scrap wood and cover it with glass. Cost is minimal and you will quickly learn how the cloth moves when wet. FWIW I like to go a littl e heavy on the resin with wetting out the cloth so it doesn’t want to pull when spreading the resin. I usually use disposable paint brushes to spread the resin and then squeegee it back out with epoxy squeegee’s that I get at the fiberglass store. You want the flexible ones, not the super stiff ones. The one problem with the paint brushes is that they lose bristles, so be ready to pick some off the model while the resin sets.

Monday, June 30, 2008

another star today # 842

From: "J Fisher"

I finished up another star today, 842. It has the 1" extra Fb ( free board) in the bow. It seems to sail well, it did not make as much difference as I expected. Still was able to bury the bow in a puff and the rail still gets put under when hard pressed.

Going to take it to TX this weekend and see how it compares. If it works well I will post the offsets and frames, if it doesn't work, will post the results.

You can also see the radio pot on the deck. I added this in expectation of sailing in salt water. It is a rubber maid screw top container, 4 for $3.50 at your local grocery store. Even has a flange so you can bolt it down.